PhD / DPhil / DSc
A Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D., DPhil) is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study and research. A Ph.D. is awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a Ph.D. are required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a dissertation, and defend their work before a panel of other experts in the field. The completion of a Ph.D. is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. The higher doctorate, Doctor of Science (DSc), is a postdoctoral degree program that is awarded to an individual who has significantly contributed to the field of research and science.