A chemical structure determination includes the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Theories of chemical structure were first developed from about 1858. These theories were first to state that chemical compounds are not a random cluster of atoms and functional groups, but rather had a definite order defined by the valency of the atoms composing the molecule, giving the molecules a three dimensional structure that could be determined or solved.
Concerning chemical structure one has to distinguish between pure connectivity of the atoms within a molecule (chemical constitution), a description of a three-dimensional arrangement (molecular configuration, includes e.g. information on chirality) and the precise determination of bond lengths, angles and torsion angles, i.e. a full representation of the (relative) atomic coordinates.
In determining structures of chemical compounds, one generally aims to obtain, first and minimally, the pattern and degree of bonding between all atoms in the molecule; when possible, one seeks the three dimensional spatial coordinates of the atoms in the molecule (or other solid).
Recent research has described a number of novel material characteristics. New identified material radiations and fields have been described and novel methods are advanced based on the “signature” of each substance. Applications of such “novel” fields are developed by our institution and a novel system has been developed. A first mature line of product has been developed and proprietary produced, resulting in the production of a unique system.
Structure elucidation is the process of determining the chemical structure of a compound. Elucidation of molecular structure is necessary to identify or confirm the structural identity of a chemical compound during chemical research or product development. Unknown substances or impurities can be difficult to identify. Chemical structural elucidation of impurities is necessary to support compound regulatory submissions for a number of industrial sectors such as agrochemicals, pharmaceutical and new chemical entity registrations. We apply our expert analysis to elucidate the structure of new chemical entities, identify impurities and conduct chemical composition characterization.
A hydrocarbon is an organic chemical compound composed exclusively of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Hydrocarbons are naturally-occurring compounds and form the basis of crude oil, natural gas, coal, and other important energy sources. Hydrocarbons are highly combustible and produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat when they are burned. Therefore, hydrocarbons are highly effective as a source of fuel.
Hydrocarbons occur naturally throughout the world, originating from plant and animal fossils that have been formed by the forces of temperature and weight over millennia. They are mostly found deep underground, in porous rock formations (such as sandstone, limestone, and shale). Porous rock formations are often found in large bodies of water, so there is an immense quantity of hydrocarbons trapped deep beneath the oceans. Oil and natural gas exploration companies use advanced engineering techniques to identify these potential reservoirs and pull their resources to the surface for human use. Examples of such technologies include offshore oil platforms, directional drilling, and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques.
Derived from the Latin term ‘forensis’ which means a public debate or discussion, forensics in the modern sense implies courts of law. Forensic Science is therefore the application of science and the scientific method to the judicial system. The important word here is science. A forensic scientist will not only be analysing and interpreting evidence but also challenged in court while providing expert witness testimony.
Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is used to enforce laws and government regulations and statutes, to resolve disputes, to assess blame and establish responsibility, and to improve public safety. Because science is now used routinely in litigation, various groups, including lawyers, judges, enforcement officials, and the public, need to know what forensic science can and cannot do. Forensic scientists use cutting-edge scientific techniques to examine and interpret evidence in connection with civil and criminal proceedings. In criminal law, forensics science can help prove the guilt or innocence of the defendant. In civil actions, forensics can help resolve a broad spectrum of legal issues through the identification, analysis and evaluation of physical evidence.